Dark Depths: A Description of Underground Atlanta

Underground Atlanta is an underground mall near GSU’s Atlanta campus. At it’s opening, it was a major tourist attraction and many visited when they came to the city. Today, due to a lack of funding and loss of public interest, the space is often deserted.


Underground Atlanta is not easily visible from street level. To enter, one must go down an escalator or flights of steps. Once downstairs, the mall stretches for about two blocks. The main shape of the mall is one long hallway with shops lining the walls and kiosks lining the sides of the walkway.

The hallway is wider than one within a typical building, and acts more as a roadway for pedestrians. The ground is made of cobblestones, and the side of the path have sidewalks that separate the main walking space from the stores.

In small offshoots, there are rectangular slabs of marble that act as benches. Next to each of these is a metal plaque on a stand. These metal plaques contain historical facts about the space, its architects, and Atlanta in general. These offshoots are evenly spaced throughout all of Underground Atlanta.

Underground Atlanta has a noise that persists constantly. Upon listening, I was not able to place what the sound was. Below is a clip of the sound.

Annotated Bibliography: Protest, Architecture of Cities, and the Built Environment

Fox, S., & Bell, A. (2016). Urban geography and protest mobilization in Africa. Political Geography, 5354-64. doi:10.1016/j.polgeo.2016.02.004

Sean Fox & Andrew Bell, faculty members at the University of Bristol and University of Sheffield (respectively), coauthored the article “Urban Geography and Protest Mobilization in Africa” which essentially states that there is no relationship between rapid urbanization in Africa and civil unrest. It “reviews the existing theoretical and empirical literature on the links between urban geography and civil unrest” (Fox, Bell 2016) through empirical investigation, theoretical and empirical literature, multilevel modelling, and the Social Conflict in Africa Database (SCAD). The purpose of this text is to oppose the long-standing theory that rapid urbanization brings about an increase in civil unrest and to describe how civil protest works in an urban environment. The intended target audience is researchers with the belief that rapid urbanization leads to increased civil unrest. Researchers, general public, and African workers specifically, will find this information useful as it finds that urbanization, a key in economic increase, does not lead to protest and civil unrest.

 

Hatuka, T. (2016). The challenge of distance in designing civil protest: the case of Resurrection City in the Washington Mall and the Occupy Movement in Zuccotti Park. Planning Perspectives, 31(2), 253-282. doi:10.1080/02665433.2015.1058183

Tali Hatuka is a lecturer and head of the Laboratory for Contemporary Urban Design in the Department of Geography and Human Environment at Tel Aviv University, as well as the author of “The Challenge of Distance in Designing Civil Protest: The Case of Resurrection City in the Washington Mall and the Occupy Movement in Zuccotti Park.” This article is about the way people define distance from locations culturally and how protesters actively challenge the boundaries of those ‘universally visible and valid distances’ (Hatuka 2016). The article utilizes research literature on the Resurrection City and Occupy movements, research articles on large-scale protests, and research articles on urban planning. The purpose of the text is to describe the ways that people and protesters actively push the boundaries of societal norm when it comes to locations of protest. The intended target audience is researchers, as they are looking towards those who hold the cultural norms that protesters are currently pushing. The general public and protesters will also find this information useful as it describes the evolution of protest.

 

Viernes, N. (2015). The Aesthetics of Protest: Street Politics and Urban Physiology in Bangkok. New Political Science, 37(1), 118-140. doi:10.1080/07393148.2014.995395

Noah Viernes is a researcher and faculty member at American InterContinental Unversity who wrote “The Aesthetics of Protest: Street Politics and Urban Physiology in Bangkok”, a historical article on the 2010 United Front for Democracy against Dictatorship, or “Red Shirts”, street protests in Bangkok, and the urban physiology’s affect on city protests. It provides evidence in the form of articles on art in protest, articles on the 2010 “Red Shirts” protests in Bangkok, and articles on urban development. The purpose of the text is to historically document the 2010 “Red Shirts” protests in Bangkok and how the development of Bangkok influenced the need for and method of protest. The intended target audience is historians and those living in the west who may not have heard of the 2010 “Red Shirts” protests. Historians and those living in the west will find this information useful as it explains partially the political climate in 2010 Bangkok as well as the methodology behind the “Red Shirts” protests where some may have never heard of the event before.

 

Eberhardt, S. (2016, December 20). (PHOTOS) – Protests don’t sway Georgia’s electors from voting for Trump. Retrieved March 20, 2017, from http://www.atlantaloop.com/photos-protests-dont-sway-states-electors-choosing-trump-president/

Steve Eberhardt, an Atlanta photographer, created the short article descriptor preceding photos showing protest not within the Georgia capitol building and not on capitol grounds. He gives evidence of this fact through photos. The purpose is to document evidence of protest across the street from the capitol. The intended target audience is the general public, especially people interested in anti-Trump protests. Protesters and those who disagree with them will find the information useful because it will either strengthen their argument or give “proof” that the other side is disruptive.

 

Beitel, K. (2013). Local protest, global movements. [electronic resource] : capital, community, and state in San Francisco. Philadelphia : Temple University Press, 2013.

Karl Beitel is a San Francisco scholar and writer who authored “Local Protests, Global Movements: Capital, Community, and State in San Francisco”, a historical coverage of anti-gentrification efforts in San Francisco and the clash between protesters and private and governmental real estate in an urban setting. His evidence includes 10 years participation in and critical observation of anti-gentrification in San Francisco, research articles on Urban Space, and research articles on eco-urbanism. The purpose of the text is to relay the history of San Francisco’s anti-gentrification movement and to explain its impact on the world at a local and global level. The intended target audience is general public and academia studying gentrification and efforts against it. Academia and the general public will find this information useful as it details the methods used to oppose gentrification in the urban environment and the impact these actions have had on the world.

 

Lipp, R. (2015). Protest Policing in New York City: Balancing Safety and Expression. Harvard Law & Policy Review, 9275.

Robin Lipp, a Program Manager at the Laura and John Arnold Foundation, wrote “Protest Policing in New York City: Balancing Safety and Expression,” a research article on the importance of protest for disadvantaged groups, the importance of protest to influence cultural norms, and the coverage of protest. Evidence used includes union and governmental press releases, police press releases, news articles on protest in New York City, and news articles on protest in Ferguson, Missouri. The purpose of the text is to explain why protest is an important feature of the disenfranchised and the methods that the government of New York City used to divert or stop these protests entirely. The intended target audience is protesters, the government, the police, and the general public as a means of explaining the necessity of protest for the disenfranchised. Protesters, the government, the police, and the general public will find this information useful as it directly explains the uses and methods of protesters in New York City as well as the methods of the government and police in shutting down these protests.

 

Liberty Plaza. (n.d.). Retrieved March 24, 2017, from https://gba.georgia.gov/gallery/liberty-plaza

This short piece posted by the Georgia Building Authority, a government organization responsible for all services associated with the management of 36 buildings and various facilities located in the Capitol Hill Complex in Atlanta, Georgia; it describes Liberty Plaza and how it is designed to be a space for public rallies and assemblies to reduce adverse effects on local traffic. Contained in the page are the original plans for the plaza, photos of the plaza now to describe what Liberty Plaza is and why it exists. The target audience is anyone interested in Liberty Plaza. Those interested in Liberty Plaza and what it looks like will find this page useful.

 

Mullis, D., Belina, B., Petzold, T., Pohl, L., & Schipper, S. (2016). Social protest and its policing in the “heart of the European crisis regime”: The case of Blockupy in Frankfurt, Germany. Political Geography, 5550-59. doi:10.1016/j.polgeo.2016.07.001

Researchers Daniel Mullis, Bernd Belina, Tino Petzold, Lucas Pohl, and Sebastian Schipper co-authored “Social Protest and Its Policing in the “Heart of the European Crisis Regime”: The Case of Blockupy in Frankfurt, Germany;” an academic journal detailing the Blockupy movement in Frankfurt, Germany and the methods they used to organize and reignite urban protest through a networking and location-based protest method. Evidence used includes German Blockupy news articles, Blockupy member interviews, Blockupy website articles, and books on urban protest. The purpose of the text is to discuss the success of the Blockupy movement in Frankfurt, Germany through the use of location-based urban protest, often on government property. The intended target audience is the researchers with an interest in Blockupy or other large-scale urban protest groups. The public may also find this information useful for the formation of future large-scale protest groups or to understand how a collectivist group managed it’s power to influence government through protest.

 

Bulley, D. (2016). Occupy Differently: Space, Community and Urban Counter-Conduct. Global Society: Journal Of Interdisciplinary International Relations, 30(2), 238-257. doi:10.1080/13600826.2015.1133567

Dan Bulley, a lecturer in International Relations in the School of Politics, International Studies and Philosophy at Queenâs University Belfast, authored “Occupy Differently: Space, Community, and Urban Counter-Conduct,” an article explaining the methods used by the Occupy movement, specifically counter-conduct. Evidence used includes articles on the Occupy movement, websites set up by the Occupy movement, police and governmental statements on the Occupy movement, and articles on urban misconduct in protest. The purpose of the text is to explain how counter-conduct worked in the favor of the Occupy movement as a method to counter control in an advanced liberal society through the use of public space. The intended target audience is protesters, academia, and lawmakers as they all stand to learn from the methodology of the occupy movement. Lawmakers, protesters, and academia will find this information useful as it describes the methods used by the Occupy movement, specifically counter-conduct, to counter control.

 

Velasco, A. (2010). “A Weapon as Power as the Vote”: Urban Protest and Electoral Politics in Venezuela, 1978-1983. Hispanic American Historical Review, 90(4), 661-695. doi:10.1215/00182168-2010-045

Authored by Alejandro Velasco, an Associate Professor of Modern Latin America at New York University, “”A Weapon as Power as the Vote”: Urban Protest and Electoral Politics in Venezuela” describes how protesters changed the political environment of Venezuela in the late 70s and early 80s. Evidence used includes interviews, excerpts from a popular Venezuelan news source (Diario de Caracas), and academic journals about urban life in Venezuela. The purpose of the text is to show the way that protest in Latin America brought about change. The intended target audience is researchers and academics in similar fields of research. Researchers might find this essay useful because it is thorough in its research and acts as a case study in Latin American protest.