Collective Work: Digital Atlanta Annotated Bibliography

Who might find this useful?

  • City planners
  • Historiographer
  • archaeologists
  • students (specifically those studying gov’t, geology, history, info systems, and modeling)
  • CIS based professions


  • The article collaborates varied and specific skills from numerous professions on the history of Atlanta along with the process of a digital remapping of the city. This cross reference of skills provides reference for students and professionals as to how their abilities contribute to a greater understanding of history and science



“Because these archaeological materials have accompanying contextual data, they can more easily be connected with other datasets, such as development maps and historical texts, to create a more holistic understanding of the various processes that impacted individuals and shaped the development of the city.” (Sec. 3, line 8-11)

“…digital heritage projects could potentially synthesize their material and standardize or consolidate their digitization, mapping, and/or modeling efforts to tell the story of a city.” (Sec. 6, line 2-4)


Page, M., Hurley, H., Collins, B., Glover, J. B., Bryant, R., Clark, E., Davis, M., Gue, R., Melton, S. V. H., Miller, B., Pierce, M. L., Slemons, M., Varner, J., Wharton, R.(2015). Digital Atlanta: A collaborative approach to remapping Atlanta’s past. 2015 Digital Heritage.

Authors Page, M.C, Hurley, J.H., Collins, B., Glover, J.B., Bryant, R., Clark, E., Davis, M., Gue, R., Van Horn Melton, S.,  Miller, B.,  Pierce, M.L., Slemons, M., Varner, J. and Wharton. R. argue that a successful, interdisciplinary collaboration is possible to yield advances in digital historiography. The article provides examples of technology that is used by students along with historical context to help bring about about an innovative approach of remapping Atlanta’s past. The main goal of the “Digital Atlanta” article is about Georgia State and Emory Universities combined efforts throughout digital projects to address Atlanta’s archaeological built environments and past achievements through digital databases such as; geo-databases, spatial history tools and digital map collections. The target audience of this article are those to work and inhabit the city of Atlanta. This is known from the consistent use of the pronoun, “we”. This implies that the authors are communicating as a whole/community. City planners, historiographers, archaeologists, urban geographers, people in CIS professions, and students who study government, geology/geography, history, information systems, or modeling may find this work useful because this article collaborates varied and specific skills from numerous professions on the history of Atlanta along with the process of a digital remapping of the city. This cross section of skills provides reference for students and professionals as to how their abilities continue to contribute to a greater understanding of history and science.

Annotated Bibliography: Protest, Architecture of Cities, and the Built Environment

Fox, S., & Bell, A. (2016). Urban geography and protest mobilization in Africa. Political Geography, 5354-64. doi:10.1016/j.polgeo.2016.02.004

Sean Fox & Andrew Bell, faculty members at the University of Bristol and University of Sheffield (respectively), coauthored the article “Urban Geography and Protest Mobilization in Africa” which essentially states that there is no relationship between rapid urbanization in Africa and civil unrest. It “reviews the existing theoretical and empirical literature on the links between urban geography and civil unrest” (Fox, Bell 2016) through empirical investigation, theoretical and empirical literature, multilevel modelling, and the Social Conflict in Africa Database (SCAD). The purpose of this text is to oppose the long-standing theory that rapid urbanization brings about an increase in civil unrest and to describe how civil protest works in an urban environment. The intended target audience is researchers with the belief that rapid urbanization leads to increased civil unrest. Researchers, general public, and African workers specifically, will find this information useful as it finds that urbanization, a key in economic increase, does not lead to protest and civil unrest.


Hatuka, T. (2016). The challenge of distance in designing civil protest: the case of Resurrection City in the Washington Mall and the Occupy Movement in Zuccotti Park. Planning Perspectives, 31(2), 253-282. doi:10.1080/02665433.2015.1058183

Tali Hatuka is a lecturer and head of the Laboratory for Contemporary Urban Design in the Department of Geography and Human Environment at Tel Aviv University, as well as the author of “The Challenge of Distance in Designing Civil Protest: The Case of Resurrection City in the Washington Mall and the Occupy Movement in Zuccotti Park.” This article is about the way people define distance from locations culturally and how protesters actively challenge the boundaries of those ‘universally visible and valid distances’ (Hatuka 2016). The article utilizes research literature on the Resurrection City and Occupy movements, research articles on large-scale protests, and research articles on urban planning. The purpose of the text is to describe the ways that people and protesters actively push the boundaries of societal norm when it comes to locations of protest. The intended target audience is researchers, as they are looking towards those who hold the cultural norms that protesters are currently pushing. The general public and protesters will also find this information useful as it describes the evolution of protest.


Viernes, N. (2015). The Aesthetics of Protest: Street Politics and Urban Physiology in Bangkok. New Political Science, 37(1), 118-140. doi:10.1080/07393148.2014.995395

Noah Viernes is a researcher and faculty member at American InterContinental Unversity who wrote “The Aesthetics of Protest: Street Politics and Urban Physiology in Bangkok”, a historical article on the 2010 United Front for Democracy against Dictatorship, or “Red Shirts”, street protests in Bangkok, and the urban physiology’s affect on city protests. It provides evidence in the form of articles on art in protest, articles on the 2010 “Red Shirts” protests in Bangkok, and articles on urban development. The purpose of the text is to historically document the 2010 “Red Shirts” protests in Bangkok and how the development of Bangkok influenced the need for and method of protest. The intended target audience is historians and those living in the west who may not have heard of the 2010 “Red Shirts” protests. Historians and those living in the west will find this information useful as it explains partially the political climate in 2010 Bangkok as well as the methodology behind the “Red Shirts” protests where some may have never heard of the event before.


Eberhardt, S. (2016, December 20). (PHOTOS) – Protests don’t sway Georgia’s electors from voting for Trump. Retrieved March 20, 2017, from

Steve Eberhardt, an Atlanta photographer, created the short article descriptor preceding photos showing protest not within the Georgia capitol building and not on capitol grounds. He gives evidence of this fact through photos. The purpose is to document evidence of protest across the street from the capitol. The intended target audience is the general public, especially people interested in anti-Trump protests. Protesters and those who disagree with them will find the information useful because it will either strengthen their argument or give “proof” that the other side is disruptive.


Beitel, K. (2013). Local protest, global movements. [electronic resource] : capital, community, and state in San Francisco. Philadelphia : Temple University Press, 2013.

Karl Beitel is a San Francisco scholar and writer who authored “Local Protests, Global Movements: Capital, Community, and State in San Francisco”, a historical coverage of anti-gentrification efforts in San Francisco and the clash between protesters and private and governmental real estate in an urban setting. His evidence includes 10 years participation in and critical observation of anti-gentrification in San Francisco, research articles on Urban Space, and research articles on eco-urbanism. The purpose of the text is to relay the history of San Francisco’s anti-gentrification movement and to explain its impact on the world at a local and global level. The intended target audience is general public and academia studying gentrification and efforts against it. Academia and the general public will find this information useful as it details the methods used to oppose gentrification in the urban environment and the impact these actions have had on the world.


Lipp, R. (2015). Protest Policing in New York City: Balancing Safety and Expression. Harvard Law & Policy Review, 9275.

Robin Lipp, a Program Manager at the Laura and John Arnold Foundation, wrote “Protest Policing in New York City: Balancing Safety and Expression,” a research article on the importance of protest for disadvantaged groups, the importance of protest to influence cultural norms, and the coverage of protest. Evidence used includes union and governmental press releases, police press releases, news articles on protest in New York City, and news articles on protest in Ferguson, Missouri. The purpose of the text is to explain why protest is an important feature of the disenfranchised and the methods that the government of New York City used to divert or stop these protests entirely. The intended target audience is protesters, the government, the police, and the general public as a means of explaining the necessity of protest for the disenfranchised. Protesters, the government, the police, and the general public will find this information useful as it directly explains the uses and methods of protesters in New York City as well as the methods of the government and police in shutting down these protests.


Liberty Plaza. (n.d.). Retrieved March 24, 2017, from

This short piece posted by the Georgia Building Authority, a government organization responsible for all services associated with the management of 36 buildings and various facilities located in the Capitol Hill Complex in Atlanta, Georgia; it describes Liberty Plaza and how it is designed to be a space for public rallies and assemblies to reduce adverse effects on local traffic. Contained in the page are the original plans for the plaza, photos of the plaza now to describe what Liberty Plaza is and why it exists. The target audience is anyone interested in Liberty Plaza. Those interested in Liberty Plaza and what it looks like will find this page useful.


Mullis, D., Belina, B., Petzold, T., Pohl, L., & Schipper, S. (2016). Social protest and its policing in the “heart of the European crisis regime”: The case of Blockupy in Frankfurt, Germany. Political Geography, 5550-59. doi:10.1016/j.polgeo.2016.07.001

Researchers Daniel Mullis, Bernd Belina, Tino Petzold, Lucas Pohl, and Sebastian Schipper co-authored “Social Protest and Its Policing in the “Heart of the European Crisis Regime”: The Case of Blockupy in Frankfurt, Germany;” an academic journal detailing the Blockupy movement in Frankfurt, Germany and the methods they used to organize and reignite urban protest through a networking and location-based protest method. Evidence used includes German Blockupy news articles, Blockupy member interviews, Blockupy website articles, and books on urban protest. The purpose of the text is to discuss the success of the Blockupy movement in Frankfurt, Germany through the use of location-based urban protest, often on government property. The intended target audience is the researchers with an interest in Blockupy or other large-scale urban protest groups. The public may also find this information useful for the formation of future large-scale protest groups or to understand how a collectivist group managed it’s power to influence government through protest.


Bulley, D. (2016). Occupy Differently: Space, Community and Urban Counter-Conduct. Global Society: Journal Of Interdisciplinary International Relations, 30(2), 238-257. doi:10.1080/13600826.2015.1133567

Dan Bulley, a lecturer in International Relations in the School of Politics, International Studies and Philosophy at Queenâs University Belfast, authored “Occupy Differently: Space, Community, and Urban Counter-Conduct,” an article explaining the methods used by the Occupy movement, specifically counter-conduct. Evidence used includes articles on the Occupy movement, websites set up by the Occupy movement, police and governmental statements on the Occupy movement, and articles on urban misconduct in protest. The purpose of the text is to explain how counter-conduct worked in the favor of the Occupy movement as a method to counter control in an advanced liberal society through the use of public space. The intended target audience is protesters, academia, and lawmakers as they all stand to learn from the methodology of the occupy movement. Lawmakers, protesters, and academia will find this information useful as it describes the methods used by the Occupy movement, specifically counter-conduct, to counter control.


Velasco, A. (2010). “A Weapon as Power as the Vote”: Urban Protest and Electoral Politics in Venezuela, 1978-1983. Hispanic American Historical Review, 90(4), 661-695. doi:10.1215/00182168-2010-045

Authored by Alejandro Velasco, an Associate Professor of Modern Latin America at New York University, “”A Weapon as Power as the Vote”: Urban Protest and Electoral Politics in Venezuela” describes how protesters changed the political environment of Venezuela in the late 70s and early 80s. Evidence used includes interviews, excerpts from a popular Venezuelan news source (Diario de Caracas), and academic journals about urban life in Venezuela. The purpose of the text is to show the way that protest in Latin America brought about change. The intended target audience is researchers and academics in similar fields of research. Researchers might find this essay useful because it is thorough in its research and acts as a case study in Latin American protest.


I’ve lived in the Metro Atlanta area for nearly 9 years, but it wasn’t until the fall semester of 2016 that I actually moved downtown. I was excited to see all of the sights that the city has to offer, and one of those was Krog Street Market. The market has quickly become one of my favorite places to get gourmet foods, people watch, and spend time with friends! When I went to take notes for my built environment description, I brought some close friends along to enjoy the space with me.`

After my detailed site description notes on Krog Street Market were taken, I decided to sit back and really absorb everything that was occurring around me. My friends and I are naturally cynical people, and we tend to enjoy gentle mockery of those who appear to have everything together. As we continued our conversations, I began to recognize a pattern in the people surrounding us.

While the people in the area were of many different races, ages, heights, and weights, they all had a defining characteristic: nearly everyone appeared to be a part of the middle or upper-middle class. While this observation is entirely subjective, I believe that it is almost entirely true.

Individuals and groups walking past our table were wearing name brand or high end clothing which appeared to be relatively new. Young children were being pushed in high end, retail expensive strollers that also appeared relatively new. Most customers at the different restaurants and shops within the building paid with cards, something that is generally more difficult for a lower class person or family to obtain.

My belief that the space was populated by mostly middle or upper-middle class citizens was solidified when I ran into one of the alumni of my fraternity. This brother* is a white man in his mid-thirties, who is a college graduate in grad school, happily married, and has a steady job. When I asked him how he felt about Krog Street Market, he replied that he loves the environment, and that he and his husband come to the area every weekend.

Observation of the many restaurants and shops within the market showed that the price levels of each venue were at an above average level. For instance, a gourmet chocolate shop housed in Krog Street Market charges $9 for each of its chocolate bars. Other shops and restaurants charge similarly high amounts for their products. This further strengthened my theory that the market caters to those of higher monetary standing, as someone with less spending money would not be likely to spend such a high amount of money ‘every weekend.’

All in all, while Krog Street Market is a beautiful place to eat and enjoy the company of others, it is not a space meant for everyone. The clientele is expected to have a certain amount of disposable income, and those without this much spending money generally do not spend as much time there as their wealthier counterparts.


*Upon meeting this alumnus, I asked his permission to quote his answers to questions I asked him about the space. He agreed, and further agreed to allow me to post these quotes on my blog.

WOODEN WALLS: Krog Street Market

Krog Street Market is a self-described ‘epicurean center’ (“History of Krog”) which houses an amalgam of different types of restaurants. It is located at 99 Krog Street in Atlanta, and since its opening in November of 2014 has grown to the point where it is listed as one of America’s best new restaurants of 2015 (“Bon Appetit | America’s Best New Restaurants 2015”).

On January 29, 2017, I went to Krog Street Market around 5:00 PM, one of its busiest times of day. Once there, I took notes on everything in my surroundings, and have since narrowed my observations to the colors and materials contained within the main dining area, as the full establishment is comprised of numerous restaurants, each with their own separate visual style.

Upon reaching the building, one of the first sights is the entrance way, which can be seen from both inside and outside of the establishment. The entrance is created by transparent,

Pictured here is the outside view of the entrance to Krog Street Market (Krog Street Market)

clear glass doors framed in rust red metal. Once through the doors, one enters a large, open seating area. One of the walls of this area is made of rectangular strips of at least four distinct colors of natural wood placed in a geometric pattern. On this wall is a finished tan wooden bar with tall metal chairs that had finished wooden seats and backs that appeared almost golden. The remaining walls are made in three sections: silver corrugated sheet metal from the ceiling down to the next section, flat grey brushed metal from there down to the next, and evenly lined brown wood from there to the concrete floor.

Spaced around the floor of the room are long tables with attached benches, both made of the same type of wood as the bar and the tall chairs. High above, grey metal pipes and bars cross around the ceiling,

Pictured here is the geometric wooden wall, as well as the wooden tables and benches (How Atlanta’s Krog Street Market Became An Immediate Success) 

with circular clear plastic light fixtures spaced about intermittently. Hanging from the pipes and bars were two types of fake snowflakes made of white plastic; one type appeared to be made of plastic tubes covered in a sparkly material, and the other type was flat and covered in the same sparkling material.

Trash cans are placed at intervals around the room in pairs. These two are identical in shape and composition, but there are marked differences. The one on the left of each pair has a black lid and has a label around the center that states “TRASH,” while the one on the right has a bright blue lid and has a label around the center that states “RECYCLING.”

Near the center of the room is a tall table with a wooden top which holds up a rectangular machine and stacks of translucent disposable plastic cups. Upon closer inspection, one can see that the machine is a water dispenser with spigots labeled “Water,” “Sparkling  Water,” and “Cold Water.”

With all of these observations able to be ascertained from an analysis of only the main eating space, it is easy to see that a full observation of the entire establishment would yield far more extensive results.


Bibliography: Bon Appetit | America’s Best New Restaurants 2015. (2015). Retrieved February 10, 2017, from

HISTORY OF KROG. (2015). Retrieved February 10, 2017, from

Krog Street Market (Atlanta, GA): Top Tips Before You Go – TripAdvisor. (2015). Retrieved February 10, 2017, from;geo=60898&detail=7383123

Park, M. Y. (2015, October 13). How Atlanta’s Krog Street Market Became an Immediate Success. Retrieved February 10, 2017, from

PATHWAYS: Georgia State Crosswalk


Taken by the author on January 30, 2017, this photo depicts the crosswalks at the corner of Central Avenue and Decatur Street near Classroom South on the Georgia State Atlanta campus. The crosswalks, which connect sidewalks on either side of the streets, are painted on the streets with a brick-like color and pattern, with the GSU logo painted in white placed in the center. Crosswalks painted like these are positioned at nearly every intersection within campus, showing students and others walking around Atlanta that they are still on the Georgia State campus.

Primary Research: Objective vs. Subjective

What is Primary Research?
-Data you collect yourself
-Analysis of things or data that have been curated into a collection or archive

Objective vs. Subjective

-We as humans are born and raised to judge everything around us
-Objective is just the facts
-Subjective is drawing conclusions
-Objectivity is decided by the masses- group agreement
-Subjectivity is what we can assume based on the objective facts- easier to draw conclusions from visual rather than audible information

Atlanta Through the Fog

This is a picture that I took on October 7, 2016, when my friends and I were at Atlantic Station gathering art supplies to use for Pride that weekend; on the train there, the heavens decided to open up. While we were shopping, the rain cleared away and left the city skyline in a beautiful blanket of fog that I felt needed to be captured and documented.